Common Business Citation Styles
Common Business Citations in APA Format and selected other links
How to Cite in Text:
Cite as (last name or company name, year, page number). Example: (Longboard Grotto, 2009, p.23)
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Consult the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) for detailed explanations and additional examples. Copies are available at the Cal State San Marcos Research Help Desk (BF76.7.P83 2009) or on Reserve.
Recommended Citation Generators
A note of caution about Citation Generators.... NOT ALL ARE ACCURATE! Like everything, you need to know the basics and use them with caution and expect to make corrections. EbscoHost databases and Proquest have built in citation generators for each article. Use Cite This, or email citation. Known bug: Proquest authors and dates may need reformatting.
KnightCite developed by Hekman Library Calvin College
DocsCite developed by Arizona State University to help cite government documents
Owl at Purdue APA Style. Highly recommended. Also note the sample manuscript with notations for APA instructions on formatting.
Cite the article as you would any print article and add the electronic access information at the end.
DOI: To access electronic articles preference is given to supplying an Digital Object Identifier, a unique number for an article. Inclusion of the DOI, if available, facilitates retrieval
How to find a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
* If no DOI end with the home page, do not paste the whole URL, of the database name, http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic
Articles, News or Trade:
News article with DOI:
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
News article, no DOI, in Lexis Nexis Academic:
Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. doi: 10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.1)
Chapter in a book:
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
McDonald, M. & Keegan, W. J. (1997). Marketing plans that work. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
E-book, no DOI:
Author (date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page number. Retrieved from http://homeurlonly.htm
Title of company (date). Publisher, database source. Retrieved from source name.
Examples: Entries in library databases:
Hoover’s Inc. (2010, February 16). Harley Davidson, Incorporated: In-depth record. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.
Qualcomm (2010). FY 2009 4th Quarter Earnings Release. Retrieved from the Qualcomm, Inc. website http://www.qualcomm.com/investor/index.html
Chapter or Section of a web document:
Cite the most specific webpage that you reference in your paper and include a link to the specific page.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger web document (chapter or section number).
Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ (courtesy of Owl at Purdue)
Spain: Culture (2010). In GlobalEdge. Retrieved January 18, 2010 from http://GlobalEdge.msu.edu/countries/spain/culture
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Musical instrument and supplies stores NAICS: 45114. Washington DC: Author.
Retrieved January 21, 2010 from the World Wide Web:
Data Set (user created):
For customized datasets derived from an electronic database.
MediaMark Reporter (2008). Give your data set a name in italics. Available from MediaMark Reporter
InfoGroup. (2010). Corporate Lodging San Diego Metro Area. Available from ReferenceUSA database.
Encyclopedia, Reference Source or Chapter in a book
See Reference list: other print sources. In Purdue Owl.
Encyclopedia, No author:
Physical Fitness Products. (2007). In Encyclopedia of American industries. (pp. 671-675). Millerton, NY: Grey House Publications.
Reference work, Author:
Basham, M. (2009). Restaurants. In Standard & Poor's industry surveys. (Vol. 1). New York: Standard &Poor's.
Reference work: Multiple Authors: (authors in order as they appear)
Edell, J. A., & Burke, M. C. (1998). Feelings towards ads. In Bearden, W. O. & Netemeyer, R. G. In Handbook of marketing scales (2nd ed., pp. 283-285). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Legal Citation Formats
See Lexis Nexis guidance for legal citations use the Uniform System of Case Citation (Blue Book).
To get the data for this YouTube clip you will need to extract speaker or author name, introductory slide, and other info.
Steuer, D. (2010). Section 2: Effects of economic downturn. 2010 county of San Diego economic roundtable. Retrieved January 21, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YA9mzYwbUc8
Personal Communication (interview)
APA rules states that you cite your interviews or emails in the text only since they are not retrievable. Your professor may also require you to list them in the Works Cited list.
Example: (J. Welch, personal communication, January 21, 2010)
Patricia Burns, e-mail message to author, December 15, 2008.
REV 10/13 by Carly Den Hartog CSUSM CoBA