Citations

Why & How to Cite?

Citation Guide Introduction

Reasons Why You Must Cite

1. It is ethical.  You avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the people whose ideas and research you use.   

2. It is proof.  It adds credibility to your argument by showing your research and conclusions are based on reliable information. 

3. It is understood.  Scholars in your discipline use this standardized format to communicate and share information.    

Academic Honesty & Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the act of taking credit for work that is not your own and can have very serious consequences. 

CSUSM's official Academic Honesty Policy outlines expectations for students.  
- Scroll down to Part VI: Definitions for information related to citation and plagiarism.

How to Cite - flowchart

How to Cite

Now you know why you have to cite, but do you know how to write your citations? This flowchart created by CSUSM librarians will take you through the process step-by-step.

Want a larger image? Click here.

AAA American Anthropological Association

AAA (General)

What is AAA style?

AAA stands for the American Anthropological Association. It is the citation style used by many anthropologists, and it is the style used in all AAA journals.

 

Official AAA Style Guide at CSUSM Libraries

The official AAA Style Guide is published only in PDF format. It is available free-of-charge from the AAA website. 

cover of AAA Style Guide

 

  • Backup Option - According to the AAA, if you cannot find the citation rule you need in their official Style Guide, you should follow the Chicago Manual of Style

 

Helpful Online Guides

AAA Style Guide (Saint Mary's University)
A guide with examples to the most commonly cited items in AAA style. Includes a sample title page, essay body page, and reference list in AAA style.


 

FAQs

Q: How do I cite an interview?

A: The format for the bibliography is:

  • Interviewee's last name, First name. Interview by interviewer's first and last name. Location, date month year. 
  • Example: Velez, Emma. Interview by Melanie Chu. San Marcos, CA, January 11, 2010.

The format for in-text citations is:

  • When paraphrasing or directly quoting the interview, use the same format as regular in-text citations without page numbers: Velez (2010) explains... or Blah blah (Velez 2010).

Q: How do I do in-text citation?

A: Both direct and indirect quotes should include page numbers, for example:

  • As Brown (2001:14) shows blah blah blah.
  • Blah blah blah (Brown 2001:14-15).
  • According to Smith (1998:14), "direct quote."
  • "Direct quote" (Smith 1998:14).

For two authors, use both names:

  • (Brown and Smith 2007:53).

For three or more authors, you can use "et al." when citing in-text:

  • Brown et al. (2009:18) investigate blah blah. List all authors in your bibliography.

Q: How do I format the bibliography?

A:  Consult the AAA Style Guide sample entries for an AAA Reference Examples list (scroll to p. 7) or use an article in AAA format as a model (scroll down to see the References Examples list p 7-8).


Sample Papers in AAA Style

Sample paper from Saint Mary's University, Canada
Scroll down to Page 16 in the PDF.

ACS American Chemical Society

ACS (General)

What is ACS style?

ACS stands for the American Chemical Society. It is the citation style most commonly used in the field of chemistry.

 

Official ACS Style Guide at CSUSM Library

The most current version (3rd edition) of The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information was published in 2006.

The Guide to ACS Style

 


 

Helpful Online Guides



 

AMS American Mathematical Society

Mathematics Citations (General)

amsrefs citations

For many CSUSM Mathematics courses, you need to use amsrefs to manage your citations. amsrefs requires LaTeX-specific formatting for the citations to appear correctly in your paper.

You can easily copy/paste the amsrefs bibliographic information directly from MathSciNet.

  1. In the full MathSciNet record, select "AMSRefs" from the drop-down menu above the record information.


     
  2. The resulting screen will display the markup code for the citation. Copy/paste the text into a text editor of your choice or directly into LaTeX.


     
  3. If you found a source from a database other than MathSciNet, check MR Lookup to verify that you have the correct citation information to include in your bibiliography. Follow steps 1-2 to find the markup code for your citation.

More LaTeX and amsrefs help

For more help using LaTeX and amsrefs, refer to the following:

  • Ethan Duckworth's LaTeX guides. These are very user-friendly and comprehensive. Especially helpful are the following:
    • How to write mathematics
    • How to format the page
    • How to make cross references
  • The AMS has created the User's Guide to amsrefs, which includes detailed instructions on how to enter your citation information in LaTeX.
    • Refer to section 5.1 on different bibliography entry types. amsrefs supports the following types of materials: article, book, misc, report, thesis, and webpage.

 

Mathematics Style and Ethics

Style Guides and Math Writing Resources

American Mathematical Society (AMS) Author Resource Center- http://www.ams.org/publications/authors/authors

American Mathematical Society Author Handbook- http://www.ams.org/publications/authors/tex/author-handbook

Mathematics into Type by Ellen Swanson (Updated 1999)- ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/author-info/documentation/howto/mit-2.pdf

Author Resources for the Mathematical Association of America (MAA)- http://www.maa.org/press/author-resources

MAA Mathematical Communication- http://mathcomm.org/

 

Ethics in Mathematics

Proven theorems and mathematical definitions are considered part of the public domain.  This practice is necessary for the advancement of the field of mathematics.  Public domain status means these theorems and definitions are available for use by anyone.   Nevertheless, public domain status does not obviate the need to acknowledge the contribution of the original authors of the theorem.  Ethical practice demands that scholars acknowledge the work and contributions of others regardless of how that work is used.  

American Mathematical Society Ethical Guidelines- http://www.ams.org/about-us/governance/policy-statements/sec-ethics

 

 

APA American Psychological Association

APA (General)

What is APA style?

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. It is the citation style used in most of the social sciences as well as some of the natural sciences.

Official APA Style Manual at CSUSM Library

This is the official APA manual published by the American Psychological Association. It is the most recent and up-to-date edition available, currently the 6th edition.

  • Library copies (BF76.7 P83 2010) 
    The CSUSM Library owns several copies of the official APA manual that you can consult in person. Click on the link above to see where they are located.
  • The official APA website 
    Need access to the official APA guidelines right now but can't get to a copy of the book? Try out their website. It has helpful FAQs and basic guidelines.


Helpful Online Guides

What is a DOI? 

APA style requires that you include a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) whenever you cite the online version of an article.  A DOI is a special number that identifies each unique article in a database.  Please note- some articles may not have a DOI.  

To find the DOI Ask a Librarian or check out the follwing tools:

Using APA for Special Cases 

More FAQs at the official APA website...

Sample Paper in APA Style

APSA American Political Science Association

APSA (General)

What is APSA style?

APSA stands for the American Political Science Association. It is the citation style used by many political science scholars, and it is the style used in all APSA journals.

 

Official APSA Style Manual at CSUSM Library

This is the official APSA manual published by the American Political Science Association. It is the most recent and up-to-date edition available.

cover of the APSA Style Manual

  • Library copies (JA86 .A52 2006) 
    The CSUSM Library owns a copy of the official APSA Style Manual that you can consult in person. Click on the link to see where it is located.
  • Free PDF from APSA website 
    The entire APSA style manual is also available for free online from the APSA website. Click on the link above to view the PDF.


 

Helpful Online Guides



 


Sample Papers in APSA Style

ASA American Sociological Association

ASA (General)

What is ASA style?

ASA stands for the American Sociological Association. It is the citation style used by many sociologists, and it is the style used in all ASA journals.

 

Official ASA Style Guide

 

This is the official ASA manual published by the American Sociological Society. The CSUSM Library currently offers copies of the 3rd edition.

cover of the ASA Style Guide

 

Helpful Online Guides



Sample Papers in ASA Style

There are currently no sample papers available in ASA style. The following links offer guidance on how to format an ASA-style paper.

Chicago/ Turabian

Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian (General)

What is Chicago or "Turabian" style?

Chicago Manual of Style was created by the University of Chicago Press. It is the citation style preferred by historians, but is also often used in other arts and humanities subjects.

"Turabian" refers to the author of a simplified version of the Chicago manual called A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

Chicago and Turabian at CSUSM Library

cover of the Chicago Manual of StyleThe Chicago Manual of Style - library copies (Z253 .U69 2010) 

cover of Turabian style manual A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers - library copies (LB2369 .T8 2007)

Tips and Tricks

There are two ways to format a bibliography in Chicago style - the Notes-Bibliography system (more common) and the Author-Date system. Always check with your professor to find out which system you should use.

You must cite images as well as quotes.  Use the examples at the Library of Congress as a model. Remember that there are two parts to your citation: information about the image and information about where you got the image.

Helpful Online Guides

Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide - basic guidelines and examples for the most commonly cited items

Also check out FAQs at the official Chicago Style Website

CiteSource Chicago (Trinity College) - includes examples, screenshots and pictures showing you how to locate the information you need to include in your citation

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) - examples of citations and paper formats 

Citing Primary Sources - 15th ed. (Library of Congress) - ATTENTION this page is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style but provides guidance on how to cite many different types of primary sources, including photographs, cartoons, sound files, pamphlets, etc.

Sample Papers in Chicago Style

Sample paper from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

CSE Council of Science Editors

CSE Citation Style (General)

What is CSE Style?

Each discipline uses a different citation style. In Biology, the most commonly used style is CSE. For this class, you will use the citation-sequence format of CSE. In this format, citations are listed at the end of the paper, in the order in which they appear in the text.

Need help? Watch this tutorial on how to cite in CSE. 

CSE Manual at CSUSM Library

The most current version (eighth edition) of Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers was published in 2014.

Library copy (T11 .S386 2014)
The CSUSM Library owns a copy of the official CSE manual that you can consult in person.

CSUSM Quick Guide to CSE Style
A concise CSE style guide with examples, based directly on the manual.

CSE Tips

CSE uses journal title abbreviations:

A couple of examples:

Journal Article

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Journal Abbrev. Year;volume(issues):pages. URL (if any). doi (if any).

Newspaper/Magazine Article

Author AA. Article title. Newspaper Title. Year Mo Date. URL.

Webpage

Author AA, Author BB. Title of homepage/website. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [dated updated; date accessed]. URL.

Not sure how to write your citations?

Get started with this flow chart created by CSUSM librarians. 

Outside Resources

These non-CSUSM resources may provide you with additional help and examples.

MLA Modern Language Association

MLA Style (General)

What is MLA style?

MLA stands for the Modern Language Association. It is the citation style most commonly used by literature and language scholars, but is also often used in other humanities subjects.

MLA Handbook at CSUSM Libraries

MLA Handbook Library copies (LB2369 .G53)

Helpful Online Guides

CiteSource MLA (Trinity College) - examples,  screenshots and pictures showing you how to locate the information you need to include in your citation

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) - examples of MLA-style citations and paper formats 

Also check out FAQs at the official MLA website...

Sample Papers in MLA Style

Sample undergraduate paper from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Sample paper from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Plagiarism

Plagiarism (General)

Plagiarism is the act of taking credit for work that is not your own and can have very serious consequences. 

CSUSM's official Academic Honesty Policy outlines expectations for students.  
- Scroll down to Part VI: Definitions for information related to citation and plagiarism.

 

Definitions of Plagiarism

Merriam Webster Definitions 

  • to use the words or ideas of another person as if they were your own words or ideas 
  • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own 
  • use (another's production) without crediting the source 
  • to commit literary theft :  present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source

"Plagiarize." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2015. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarize>.

Plagiarism.org definition Plagiarism.org has useful information but be aware it is sponsored by a fee-based service that is not affiliated with or endorsed by CSUSM Libraries.

 

Tutorials about Plagiarism

Accidental Plagiarism - Don't Let it Happen to YouUniversity of Arizona Libraries

Plagiarism TutorialUniversity of Texas Libraries

 

Videos on Plagiarism

Video from Bainbridge State College

Plagiarism: How to avoid it

Video from Brock University Canada

What is plagiarism and how to avoid it

Video created by the University of Bergen Norway- press CC to view caption in English

Et Plagieringseventyr

Citation Generators

Citation Generators (General)

Citation Generators

There are many applications available to help you create citations. Some databases also provide citation formatting assistance. These can be convenient, but they are NOT 100% accurate.  ALWAYS check that the citation is formatted correctly according to the official style guide.

 

The following are all free citation generators:

KnightCite Citation Service from the Hekman Library of Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Son of Citation Machine  from Landmarks for Schools.

Zotero from Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media.

Cite Fast includes APA, MLA, and Chicago

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