Follow the steps outlined by the Purdue Online Writing Lab to learn how to paraphrase correctly.
Follow the steps outlined by the Purdue Online Writing Lab to learn when to use direct quotations.
In-text citations - used in the body of the paper
- Single author paraphrase, one article: (Lienemann, 1938)
- Single author paraphrase, two or more articles: (Lienemann, 1938; Jamison, 2006).
- Two authors paraphrase, one article: (Morritt and Spicer, 1996)
- Two authors paraphrase, two or more articles: (Morritt and Spicer, 1996; Jamison, 2006; Smith, 1997).
- More than two authors paraphrase, one article: (Morritt et al., 1998)
- More than two authors paraphrase, two or more articles: (Morritt et al., 1998; Lienemann, 1938; Gupta et al., 2004).
- List references in alphabetical order.
- Use bold for authors' names and volume number.
- Abbreviate journal names according to ISO Abbreviation.
- If there are more than 10 authors, use 'et al.' after the 10th author.
Author last name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title with all words in lowercase except proper nouns and Genus Sp. in italics. Abbreviated Journal Title Volume, page-pages.
Bradley, T. J. (1984). Mitochondrial placement and function in insect ion-transporting cells. Am. Zool. 24, 157-167.
Waugh, J. M. and Aarssen, L. W. (2012). Size distributions and dispersions along a 485-year chronosequence for sand dune vegetation. Ecol. Evol. 2, 719-726.
THREE TO TEN AUTHORS (yes, you list them all in bibliography)
Paig-Tran, E. W., Bizzarro, J. J., Strother, J. A., and Summers, A. P. (2011). Bottles as models predicting the effects of varying swimming speed and morphology on size and selectivity and filtering efficiency in fishes. J. Exp. Biol. 214, 1643-1654.
ELEVEN OR MORE AUTHORS (after the 10th author, use 'et al.')
Rovio, A. T., Abel J., Ahola, A. L., Andres, A. M., Bertranpetit, J., Blancher, A., Bontrop, R. E., Chemnick, L. G., Cooke, H. J., Cummins, J. M., et al. (2004). A prevalent POLG CAG microsatellite length allele in humans and African great apes. Mamm. Genome 15, 492-502.
USING WORK BY SAME AUTHOR, SAME YEAR:
Smith, A. B. (1995a). Epithelial cell structure and polarity. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 53, 25-54.
Smith, A. B. (1995b). The rise in blood glucose during hibernation of the golden headed plover Dickus birdus. J. Avian Med. Surg. 20, 19-21.
TIPS ON LOCATING THE CORRECT JOURNAL TITLE ABBREVIATION
- You can find these abbreviations by searching the NLM Journal Catalog. You can search for a journal by topic, title, or ISSN. In the journal's record, search for the ISO abbreviation -- notice sometimes periods are used in the abbreviation, sometimes not.