BIOL 309: The Biology of Emerging Diseases

Start Here!

Start Here!

BIOL 309 - Start Here

For this class, you are required to conduct some research on a particular disease. You need to find background information such as how it spreads, its pathophysiology, current therapies, etc. In addition, you need to locate current information on the disease using scholarly articles.

To begin, look online to learn a bit about your disease. Some good places to start are:


  • Your disease might have multiple names -- search for all of them. For example, bird flu = avian flu = H5N1.
  • Combine your search terms to find more specific information about your disease. For example: H5N1 AND epidemiology.
  • Don't forget about books! Search the library's book catalog by your disease name to see what we have.

Finding Journal Articles

Finding Journal Articles

BIOL 309 - Journal Articles

For your assignment, you need to find 3 scholarly articles on your topic. Use the library's article databases to locate what you need. 

  • PubMed - START HERE! PubMed is the premier database of world biomedical literature on clinical medicine and preclinical research. Search by keywords, such as: "H5N1" AND epidemiology.
  • Biological Abstracts - A complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally.

Search Tips:

  • To find the full text of an article, look for icons for PDFs, full text links, or "Get It!". 
  • Finding too much? Try adding additional keywords or limiting your search by date (for instance, only the last 5 years).
  • Finding too little? First, make sure you're spelling everything correctly. Still not finding enough? Remove some keywords or combine similar terms with "OR". For example, search for: "bird flu" OR "H5N1" OR "avian influenza".
  • Can't tell if an article is "scholarly"? Check this guide from the Rutgers Library.



CSE Citation Style (General)

What is CSE Style?

Each discipline uses a different citation style. In Biology, the most commonly used style is CSE. CSE uses three different formats: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year -- you will want to check with your professor to see which format they prefer.

Citation-sequence: Citations are  included in a numbered list at the end of the paper, in the order in which they appear in the text. Within the text of your paper, use superscript numbers to refer to the corresponding citation in your citation list. 

Citation-name: Citations are included in a numbered list at the end of the paper in a numbered list, in alphabetical order by author last name. Within the text of your paper, use superscript numbers to refer to the corresponding citation in your list. 

Name-year: Citations are listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order by author last name, but not numbered. Within the text of your paper, cite sources by using the author's last name followed by the year of publication in parentheses. For example: Jones (2005). 

CSE Tips

CSE uses journal title abbreviations:

A couple of examples:

Journal Article

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Journal Abbrev. Year;volume(issues):pages. URL (if any). doi (if any).

Newspaper/Magazine Article

Author AA. Article title. Newspaper Title. Year Mo Date. URL.


Author AA, Author BB. Title of homepage/website. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [dated updated; date accessed]. URL.

CSE Guides & Resources

These resources may provide you with additional help and examples.

CSE Manual at CSUSM Library

The most current version (eighth edition) of Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers was published in 2014.

Library copy (T11 .S386 2014)
The CSUSM Library owns a copy of the official CSE manual that you can consult in person.



Not sure how to write your citations?

Get started with this flow chart created by CSUSM librarians. 

How to Write a Citation: a flowchart

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