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LBST 100 / 300 - An Introduction to Critical Education (Ardon)

LBST 100 / 300: Education Equity Report Guidelines

LBST 100 / 300: Education Equity Report Guidelines

Objective: The Education Equity Reports aim to provide a multidimensional understating of diverse communities within the United States educational system. Each report should offer comprehensive knowledge into the community’s history, sociocultural, economic, and civic landscape, and highlight educational issues of concern to local communities.

Directions: You will choose a community and a school in California to report on its geographic and demographic background, history, issues of education inequity, and community advocacy. You may use reports, census data, and/or newspaper articles to conduct your reporting. The reports are worth 15 points each. Each report should be between 3-4 pages, doubled-spaced, 12-point font, Times New Roman. 

LBST 100 / 300: Research Essay Guidelines

LBST 100 / 300: Research Essay Guidelines (Ardon)

Objective: Explore and analyze the ways in which discrimination is manifested in society and how discrimination affects diverse communities in the U.S.

Overview: Incorporating theoretical frameworks discussed in class, the research should emphasize one form of discrimination (race, ethnicity, age, nationality, language, socio-economic status, social mobility, religion, gender, sexual orientation, disability, etc.) and how it affects a segment of the population (women, men, LGBTQ, youth, elders, people of color, immigrants, etc.) in a particular social setting (education, health, employment, living conditions, political representation, media representation, etc.).

Directions: The student must conduct their own original research. - The findings should be based on at least 5 peer-reviewed journal articles, and a combination of concepts discussed in class, course readings, and/or statistical data. - The essay should be 4-5 pages in length, doubled-spaced, 12-point font, Times New Roman, and APA style. 

LBST 100/300: How to identify credible sources

LBST 100 / 300: Identifying Credible Sources

Determining Credibility of your Sources

Determining credibility of your sources is critical to selecting appropriate information sources for your research assignments. Scholarly journals are regarded as the most credible types of sources because of the rigorous peer review process they undergo.

However, for Liberal Studies 100 / 300, you will also need to consult non-scholarly sources including newspaper articles and websites for general background information on your chosen topic; thus, you will also need to determine credibility of these sources.

Here are some ways to identify credibility:

Authority
  • Can you identify the author(s)? If the source is anonymous, why?
  • Can you identify author credentials (education, job expertise)? Can these be verified elsewhere?
  • Is the author affiliated with an academic institution or credible organization?
  • Is there an "About Us" page that describes the organization?
  • Do a Google search for the author's name (enclose in quotation marks) and see what kind of sites come up. Do they seem credible?
Accuracy
  • Does the information have grammatical/spelling errors? 
  • Does it list sources or links to factual information? Are the links updated or do they lead to 404 error pages?
  • Is there a bibliography?
  • Can this information be verified elsewhere?
  • What kind of editorial vetting did the information undergo?
  • Is the research methodology adequately explained?
Audience
  • Who is the intended audience for the information? Academics? General public?
  • Is the information appropriate for your research assignment?
Bias
  • Does the author present objective arguments or make it clear when they're expressing opinions?
  • Is the website personal or institutional?
  • What other views are expressed?
  • Are there advertisements? If so, how are they differentiated from the content?
  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform? To persuade? To market?
  • What does the URL say about the website? .com=Commercial, .edu=Educational, .gov=Government, .mil=Military, .org=Non-Profit
Currency
  • Is the information outdated or up to date?
  • Can you ascertain content's date of creation?
  • Are the links working?
  • Credible websites will display "last updated" dates; working links indicate the website is being maintained regularly.

Source: University of South Carolina, Upstate Library

 

Additional resources for identifying credibility of news sources:

Fake News, Propaganda, and Misinformation: Learning to Critically Evaluate Media Sources (Cornell University)

Credible Sources (SUNY Empire State College)

 

Databases to use in Critical Education Research

Education Databases

Database Full Text Coverage Scholarly
PsycINFO

Available via EbscoHost: A comprehensive international database of psychology, covering the academic, research, and practice literature in psychology from over 45 countries in more than 30 languages.

Report Problems
Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1887 to current All
Sociological Abstracts

Provides access to the latest international findings in theoretical and applied sociology, social science, and political science.

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Links to full-text via Get-It 1963 to current All
ERIC

A national database of education literature, including reports and journal articles.

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ALERT! Within ERIC search results: IF the "Link to ERIC full text" does not work, try the "Get It!" link.
Links to full-text via Get-It 1966 to current Some
JSTOR

Contains (EXCEPT for the latest five years) core scholarly journals in sociology, history, economics, political science, mathematics, African-American & Asian studies, literature, humanities, music, and biological, health & general sciences.

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Full-text 1838 to most recent five years Most
Database Full Text Coverage Scholarly
Google Scholar CSUSM

Link to citations and full-text from your CSUSM Library databases and beyond!

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Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It current to current All
Dissertations and Theses Database: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection

Dissertations and Theses Database includes digitized dissertations in a variety of subject areas including Art, Communications, Education, History, Linguistics, Literature, and Social Sciences.

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Some full-text 1979 to current All
Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA)

Provides abstracts of articles from about 2,000 journals (published worldwide), coverage of recent books, book review citations and dissertation listings.

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Links to full-text via Get-It 1973 to current All
Academic Search Premier

This scholarly collection offers information in nearly every area of academic study including: computer sciences, engineering, physics, chemistry, language and linguistics, arts & literature, medical sciences, ethnic studies, and many more.

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Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1975 to current Most

Current News & Newspapers

Use these databases to search across newspapers and news magazines. To access full-text of the article, look for the GET-IT Button.

Database Full Text Coverage Scholarly
Ethnic NewsWatch

Full-text ethnic newspapers, searchable in English or Spanish.

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Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1992 to current None
ProQuest - News & Newspapers

Search among ProQuest’s News & Newspapers databases

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Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1985 to current None
GenderWatch

GenderWatch contains publications which focus on how gender impacts a broad spectrum of subject areas. GenderWatch is a repository of an important historical perspective on the evolution of the women’s movement and the changes in gender roles.

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Full-text 1970 to current All
PAIS

An important index to political, economic, and social issues in current debate.

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Links to full-text via Get-It 1972 to current All
Factiva

Covers news and business information, including Dow Jones and Reuters newswires and The Wall Street Journal, plus more than 8,000 other sources providing current news.

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Full-text 1975 to current Some
Academic Search Premier

This scholarly collection offers information in nearly every area of academic study including: computer sciences, engineering, physics, chemistry, language and linguistics, arts & literature, medical sciences, ethnic studies, and many more.

Report Problems
Some full-text; plus links to full-text via Get-It 1975 to current Most
Database Full Text Coverage Scholarly
San Diego Union Newspaper Archive

Collection of newspapers published in San Diego under various titles, including the San Diego Union.

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Full-text 1872 to 1983
New York Times (Current, 1980-present)

Articles from the New York Times from 1980-present.  For articles prior to 1980, see the New York Times (Historical Collection) Database.

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Full-text 1980 to present None
New York Times (Historical Collection)

The New York Times Historical Collection provides full page and article images including the NY Daily Times (1851-1857). The most recent four years not included in this historical collection can be searched through ProQuest Direct, LexisNexis or Factiva.

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Full-text Archive None
African American Newspapers, 1827-1998

Newspapers digitized from 37 states chronicling African American experiences and influence in a variety of events from the early 19th through late 20th centuries.

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Full-text 1827 to 1998 None
Hispanic American Newspapers, 1808-1980

Spanish and English language newspapers offering news, advertisements, opinion and more from across the nation reflecting contemporary thought and activity.

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Full-text 1808 to 1980 None
Los Angeles Times (1996-present)

Los Angeles Times articles from 1996-present. For articles published prior to 1996, see the Los Angeles Times (Historical) Database.

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Full-text 1996 to present None
Los Angeles Times (Historical)

Archival issues and articles beginning with 1881. Issues published during the past twenty-four years are not available in this database. Check ProQuest or Factiva databases for the material not held in this collection.

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Full-text Archive None
San Diego Union Tribune (current coverage)

The San Diego Union-Tribune is the product of a merger of the San Diego Union, founded in 1868, and the Evening Tribune, founded in 1895. Published from an editorial, printing and business plant in San Diego's Mission Valley, it is the second-oldest newspaper in Southern California, and the oldest business in San Diego County; an area known as a popular vacation destination and home to Mission Bay Park, the largest man-made aquatic park in the country, consisting of 4,235 acres. The Union-Tribune has won numerous journalism awards over the years, including the Pulitzer Prize, and features daily news, sports, shopping, and entertainment coverage for the San Diego area.

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Full-text 1983 to current Some

LBST 100 / 300 How do I structure a keyword search?

LBST 100 / 300 How do I structure my keyword search?

Before you embark on your database search, take a few moments to identify keywords, which will be a timesaver for you. Some things to try:

  • Write down any research questions you have about your topic; these should be open-ended (starting with How...? or Why...?)
  • Identify the key concepts from your research question (look at the nouns)
  • Write down synonyms for those key concepts

Taking a few minutes to think about and identify some keywords before starting your search will help you search more efficiently, which will save you time (and frustration).

  • Identify important concepts from your research question (look for nouns)
  • Brainstorm some synonyms (to help you find more information)
  • Keep track of useful terms you discover during research and add those to your set of keywords

Ex. research question: How are nutrition programs in California public schools impacting academic performance?

(Identify the keywords in this research question)

How are nutrition programs in California public schools impacting academic performance?

nutrition programs California

public schools

academic performance
healthy eating Los Angeles

elementary school

grades
food insecurity San Diego

middle school 

student achievement
hunger Oakland high school educational outcomes

Tips on searching the databases

Here are some general tips on searching for articles for your report:

Tip Examples
Use keywords, not long search phrases

Instead of searching for "How are nutrition programs in California public schools impacting academic performance?" break down your search into the main keywords:

California, nutrition, public school, academic performance

Use quotation marks (" ") to keep phrases together

Use AND to combine different keywords

"food insecurity" AND "public school"
Use OR to combine similar/associated keywords "food insecurity" or hunger
Look for ways to limit your search in the database You can often limit by type of article (scholarly and peer-reviewed), year of publicationsubject 

 

Citing Your Sources

MLA Style (General)

What is MLA style?

MLA stands for the Modern Language Association. It is the citation style most commonly used by literature and language scholars, but is also often used in other humanities subjects.

MLA Handbook at CSUSM Libraries

MLA Handbook Library copies (LB2369 .G53)

Helpful Online Guides

CiteSource MLA (Trinity College) - examples,  screenshots and pictures showing you how to locate the information you need to include in your citation

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) - examples of MLA-style citations and paper formats 

Also check out FAQs at the official MLA website...

Sample Papers in MLA Style

Sample paper from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)


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