APA Citation Style Guide (General)
Has links to guides and citation generators.
Sources, Citations and Style. Watch this APA Citation Style Video (OWL Purdue. 2015) BUS 495
Reference the APA handout created by the writing center. This is a single-page handout. It is intended to be printed two-sided and tri-folded.
- Need help, visit the writing center!
Common Business Citation Styles in APA Format
How to Cite in Text:
Cite as (last name or company name, year, page number). Example: (Longboard Grotto, 2009, p.23)
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Consult the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) for detailed explanations and additional examples. Copies are available at the Cal State San Marcos Research Help Desk (BF76.7.P83 2009) or on Reserve.
Recommended Citation Generators:
A note of caution about Citation Generators.... NOT ALL ARE ACCURATE! Like everything, you need to know the basics and use them with caution and expect to make corrections. EbscoHost databases and Proquest have built in citation generators for each article. Use Cite This, or email citation. Known bug: Proquest authors and dates may need reformatting.
KnightCite Hekman Library Calvin College
DocsCite Arizona State University to help cite government documents
Owl at Purdue APA Style. Highly recommended. Also note the sample manuscript with notations for APA instructions on formatting.
DOI Digital Object Identifiers
Cite the article as you would any print article and add the electronic access information at the end.
DOI: To access electronic articles preference is given to supplying an Digital Object Identifier, a unique number for an article. Inclusion of the DOI, if available, facilitates retrieval
* If no DOI end with the home page, do not paste the whole URL of the database name.
Articles, News or Trade:
News article with DOI:
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
News article, no DOI, in Factiva
Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Retrieved from Factiva.
CQ FD Disclosure (2017). Event Brief of Q3 2017 McCormick & Company Inc Earnings Call - Final. Retrieved from Factiva.
Newspaper: San Diego Union Tribune
Econometer: $15 an hour for fast food jobs? Should the minimum wage be nearly doubled to $15 per hour for fast-food workers? (2013, September 8). U-T San Diego (CA) (First Edition ed.), C-2. Retrieved September 13, 2013, from NewsBank on-line database (Access World News)
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. doi: 10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.1)
Chapter in a book:
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
McDonald, M. & Keegan, W. J. (1997). Marketing plans that work. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
E-book, no DOI:
Chapter or Section of a web document:
Cite the most specific webpage that you reference in your paper and include a link to the specific page.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger web document (chapter or section number).
Spain: Culture (2010). In GlobalEdge. Retrieved January 18, 2010 from https://GlobalEdge.msu.edu/countries/spain/culture
Company Information TEMPLATE
Author (date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page number. Retrieved from http://nnnnnnn.htm
Title of company (date). Publisher, database source. Retrieved from source name.
Examples: Entries in library databases:
Hoover’s Inc. (2010, February 16). Harley Davidson, Incorporated: In-depth record. Retrieved from ABI Inform.
Qualcomm (2010). FY 2009 4th Quarter Earnings Release. Retrieved from the Qualcomm, Inc. website https://www.qualcomm.com
Cohen, A. (2017). Department stores in the U.S report 45211. IBISWorld Industry. Retrieved from IBISWorld database
First Research (2017). Clothing Stores. Retrieved from Mergent First Research.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Musical instrument and supplies stores NAICS: 45114. Washington DC: Author.
Retrieved August 22, 2016 from the World Wide Web:https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml
Data Set (user created): For customized datasets derived from an electronic database.
REFERENCEUSA or data generated from an analytics site or GIS
InfoGroup. (2010). Corporate Lodging San Diego Metro Area. Available from ReferenceUSA database.
ESRI. San Diego County Market Potential. 2016. www.communityanalystonline.com. August 25, 2017.
SimplyAnalytics user created data set / map:
SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.
Encyclopedia, Reference Source or Chapter in a book
See Reference list: other print sources. In Purdue Owl.
Encyclopedia, No author:
Physical Fitness Products. (2007). In Encyclopedia of American industries. (pp. 671-675). Millerton, NY: Grey House Publications.
Reference work, Author:
Basham, M. (2009). Restaurants. In Standard & Poor's industry surveys. (Vol. 1). New York: Standard &Poor's.
Reference work: Multiple Authors: (authors in order as they appear)
Edell, J. A., & Burke, M. C. (1998). Feelings towards ads. In Bearden, W. O. & Netemeyer, R. G. In Handbook of marketing scales (2nd ed., pp. 283-285). Thousand Oaks: Sage.