Chicago manual of style


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Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

Library Copies (Z253 .U69)

Notable changes in the 16th edition

Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation Online: Chicago Style



MLA Style Guide

As an emerging scholar in your field, graduate students are required to follow the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholary Publishing, which is a different work than the Handbook you used as an undergraduate (see MLA's explanation of the difference).This work, in its 3rd edition, focuses more on formatting manuscripts for publication in both refereed and non-referred journals and books.

The information on citing resources is more current in the MLA Handbook, 7th edition (released mid-2009), but the formatting rules in the Style Manual are the current rules for graduate-level work.



MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2008. Third Edition

Modern Language Association.


CSUSM Research Help Collection  PN 147 .G44 2008


See also: Documenting Sources: A Hacker Handbooks Supplement: Guidelines based on the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, Third Edition.

AAA: American Anthropological Association

Every time you use someone else's ideas (even if you explain the idea in your own words) give credit in your bibliography *and* in the text of your paper.

The American Anthropological Association has its own citation style and paper format, described in The AAA Style Guide 

  • AAA is based primarily on the Chicago Manual of Style When the AAA Style Guide above doesn’t specify a rule, you can follow Chicago Style. See Diana Hacker's guide to Chicago style.



To format citations in the text of your paper:

Both direct and indirect quotes should include page numbers. 

  • As Brown (2001:14) shows blah blah blah.
  • Blah blah blah (Brown 2001:14-15).
  • According to Smith (1998:14), "direct quote."
  • "Direct quote" (Smith 1998:14).
  • For two authors, use both names: (Brown and Smith 2007:53).
  • For three or more authors, you can use "et al." when citing in-text: Brown et al. (2009:18) investigate blah blah. List all authors in your bibliography.
  To cite an interview:
  • Interviewee's last name, First name.  Interview by interviewer's first and last name. Location, date month year. 
  • Velez, Emma. Interview by Melanie Chu. San Marcos, CA, January 11, 2010.
  • For in-text citations, when paraphrasing or directly quoting the interview, use the same format as above without page numbers: Velez (2010) explains... or Blah blah (Velez 2010).

To format your bibliography:

  • The AAA Style Guide includes sample entries for an AAA References Cited list (scroll to p. 7).
  • Look at an article in AAA format. Scroll down to see the references cited list.

Here is a citation of a journal article in an AAA References Cited list, with all parts of the citation labeled:


A labeled diagram of an AAA citation


Additional resources on plagiarism and academic honesty.

    CSE: Council of Science Editors

    Quick Summary
    Library Copies (T11 .S386 2006)



    University of Chicago Law Review Style Sheet

    Download the Style Sheet as a PDF file

    APA: American Psychological Association

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    APA Style Help
    Including APA style guide to electronic references

    Finding the DOI

    Library Copies (BF76.7 .P83 2001)